The History Of Cardboard Box

At one point in your life, you may have seen a cardboard box such as those used as moving boxes in Brisbane or for storing household items. A packaging firm, Pack Size, said that the very first cardboard box which is quite similar to what we are using today was developed in the 15th century by the Chinese. It was created using papyrus which resulted to a lightweight and durable box used for storing things inside the house.

The papyrus box was used until the 19th century. By then, an English industrialist called Sir Malcolm Thornhill developed his own single sheet box made of cardboard, a thick and durable paper but heavier. Commercial production of this type of cardboard began in 1817.

Despite being released in the market, the cardboard boxes did not achieve popularity until Kellogg came along. In the 1850s, the cereal manufacturing company used cardboard boxes for the packaging of their products. Ten years before that, the boxes were used to store eggs and moths coming from Japan going to Europe.

Up until that time, the paper material used in creating the cardboard boxes has a smooth texture. Edward Allen together with Edward Healey in 1856 developed corrugated paper which they used as line for the products they are selling which are the tall hats.

Starting in 1871, corrugated boards were used in making cardboard boxes. Albert Jones who is an American businessman was the one who applied for a pattern of the corrugated cardboard box. He uses the box to secure glass lamps and bottles.

Up until that point, it was not literally a box but a board because it only has one side. Oliver Long, an American inventor, created a box using only liner sheets on the remaining two sides after three years. This is the form of the box we know of and use today.

The foldable cardboard boxes, on the other hand, were discovered by accident in 1879 by Robert Gair, a Scottish owner of a paper bag factory located in New York. Nowadays, cardboard boxes are used in various applications such as moving boxes in Brisbane and the most innovative is that it was used to create a house.

Settling For The Best California Rehab Center

If you happen to know someone you love who has finally decided to do away with drug or alcohol addiction, you will find that there are two completely different treatment routines, which they can try to achieve the main goal of uninterrupted recovery. The very first treatment is to actually remove the substance abuse abruptly, while the second is to subject oneself to outpatient treatment, and the final option is to submit for an inpatient plan. Among these choices, an inpatient treatment program is the best as you significantly get most of the support and success. California rehab come plenty in this state, and they can provide the highest level of treatment programs, which lead to long-term and complete recovery.

Choosing the right California rehab will make you recognize that it’s actually the best in the whole country. They can offer a luxurious and beautiful recovery center that you or your loved one can be comfortable, benefited and enjoy the amenities all throughout the entire stay. They provide a breathtaking campus that will make you peaceful, quiet and relaxed. You will surely be strengthened and focused more on your recovery. You are provided with approaches that help you defeat addiction, and the results will totally heal you.

The inpatient treatment plan will provide no spare time for the recovering addict to consider the way to use drugs. The plan will consider medications that will less likely lead to relapse. The facility will possibly limit phone calls and allow visitors to spend a couple of hours on the weekend. This policy will keep the addict separated from individuals who might be the reason for the addiction. They are housed in an inpatient California rehab where they can take advantage of a 24/7 medical and mental support from a seasoned staff.

If you want more information about top California rehab, you can check out some websites found on the Internet. You may also want to read reviews about their treatment programs or get a recommendation from a doctor or counselor about the best rehab in California. They can surely provide you with great therapies and counseling sessions.

Legal Age Of Buying Tobacco And Its Taxes In Ohio Could Increase

A survey was conducted by the Ohio Health Issues Poll in 2017, which received sponsorship from the Interact for Health, showed that almost six in every 10 adults in Ohio or equivalent to 58 per cent are in agreement that legislation should be passed to increase the minimum legal age by which an individual can purchase tobacco products. The current minimum age to buy cigarettes is 18 and they are planning to increase it to 21. The rate of adults in favor in 2017 is higher compared to 2016 when there was only 53 per cent approval rate. This includes the population that is planning to begin Ohio application for tax ID.

According to the president and CEO of Interact for Health, O’dell Moreno, said that if the minimum legal age is to be increased, this might impact young adults into delaying smoking and there is a big possibility that after a few years health problems due to smoking will decreased as well.

In the case of Republicans and Democrats, the majority of them are in favor of increasing the minimum legal age while for Independents almost half of them are in favor of the legislations of raising the age to 21. When looking at the smoking status, there are variations in the percentage of support. For those adults who have never smoked before, six in every 10 or 60 per cent are in favor while for those who have smoked before the percentage in favor is 61 per cent. Adults who are currently smoking were also asked and 50 per cent of them are in favor of raising the minimum legal age to purchase tobacco.

Along with the survey of increasing the minimum legal age, adults in Ohio were also asked if they are in favor of raising the tax of cigarettes for very pack to 65 per cent. When the poll was conducted, a proposal was already being considered. Over half or 53 per cent of adults in Ohio supports the increase in tax for cigarettes. Adults who are planning to begin Ohio application for their tax ID should also have a say in this poll.

Reasons To Get Into Latin Women Dating

Surely there are different races of women and each race has their own interesting features and characteristics. However, if you have an exotic taste for women, one of the things that you might want to get into is Latin women dating. Whether you find Latinas online or ask your Latino friends to hook you up with one, one thing is for sure, you can never be wrong with Latin women. Here are some of their best characteristics.

Physical features and charm

Latinas are generally fish and seafood, vegetable and fruits eater, which is why you would seldom see an overweight Latina woman. They are conscious of their figure and their food culture generally promotes healthier and shapelier figure. Most Latinas are also dark-haired which adds to their charm and mysterious appeal.  Latinas are generally sexy which is why they are some of the most sought-after women in the world.


When you get Latin women dating with you, you would not only date the girl, you also have to be acquainted with her family members and close friends. Latin people in general, are family-oriented, friendly and they welcome guests with comforting warmth. Even minor achievements calls for family members to gather and celebrate. This is also the reason why their family ties are closely-knit. If you want to be a part of a family, date a Latina and you will instantly have a family to call your own.


While Latinas are charming and sweet, they can also be feisty and possessive among those they love. They can also be a little crazy when threatened. This is the reason why, having a Latina for a girlfriend or even a wife can never be boring. They can dance to Latin songs that comes on the airwaves and they never say no to a dance offers as they are gifted with it.

Loyal and loving

Probably the main reason why a lot of men are looking for Latin women dating opportunities is due to the fact that they are loyal and loving. Ask anyone who has a Latina wife or girlfriend and you will surely envy how they are loved and well taken care of.

Freeport’s Glacken Park To Sport Artificial Lawn This Year

It is quite common to hear about cancelled games and accidents among children playing baseball at the Freeport field. The culprit for these is the wet grass. This is going to change soon as the baseball field will soon be installing artificial grass rugs in replacement for their natural grass.

Robert Kennedy, the current mayor of Freeport Village, said that Nassau County has given them a grant worth $385,000 and they are going to use it to take away the existing grass found on the Glacken Park field. After which the land will be regarded before the turf is installed. An intermunicipal agreement has been signed between the county and the board of trustees last December 4 which grants permission for the project to start.

Glacken Park is located in the northwestern side of Freeport and it has a total land area of 2.86 acres. The village park also features a handball wall, diamond for the Little League which is within the regulation allows and basketball courts. Kennedy said that the baseball field is used mainly by the Police Athletic League and the Freeport Little League. Community organizations are also allowed to utilize the field. In total, the space is used between 800 and 1,000 hours every year.

He explained that the main issue with the field is the poor drainage system which is why it is common for water to pond. Before the games could start, they have to drain these ponds each time. The local government is ordering their DPW staff to visit the field to make sure there are not water before a game since it is always the cause of sliding and slipping among playing kids.

Michael Aviles, the president of Freeport Little League, said that during the season of spring around five games are being cancelled out of the total 16 due to bad condition of the field or due to rain. He added that a rain the night before a game means a cancellation because the field has to be prepped before use. He believes that installing artificial grass rugs will solve the problems as well as encourage addition tournaments coming from different organizations.

Younger Children With Farsightedness May Need Eye Check Up In Engadine

A new study suggests that farsighted kindergartners and preschoolers will find difficulty in paying attention to their teachers and will be at risk to slipping behind in school. This of course will need eye check up in Engadine to correct the difficulty.

Around 4-15% of younger kids have moderate farsightedness or hyperopia and can be left undiscovered. With moderate farsightedness, wearing of eyeglasses may not be the solution as there’s a disparity whether correcting their vision is appropriate for their age.

According to Ohio State University professor of optometry, Marjean Taylor Kulp, there is an evidence showing that moderately farsighted 4- to 5-year-olds are battling the building blocks of learning.

“We know that these younger kids with unremediedfarsightedness can minimize early literacy, and can deficit their learning at an early age,” she said.

In the new study, Kulp and her associates had kids undergo eye check up in Engadine with and without farsightedness to evaluate their attention and the capacity to combine motor skills and visual perception.

The eye check up in Engadine had kids examined for visual attention included viewing a picture like a butterfly, and discovering related pictures in a variety of images.

Those kids who were moderately farsightedness based on the eye exams significantly had poorer scores on the attention-related tests.


The study involved 245 kids with moderate farsightedness and 247 children with normal vision. Most were enrolledin preschool programs in Massachusetts, Ohio and Pennsylvania. The study described the various races, sex, age and parental education status.


According to research, kids with uncorrected farsightedness were incapable to read before they started first grade.


Though this study has no relation between learning and attention, previous studies show how the difficulties can stand in the way for learning in the classroom.

The experimenters then applied for funding to do another study to identify the effects of glasses to correct farsightedness. Until the study is complete, it is still vague as to whether kids wearing eyeglasses can help with the setbacks, Kulp said.

Meanwhile, Kulp suggested that moderate farsightedness can have a potential to create problems on literacy and learning. This is after the eye check up in Engadinehad been performed.

“It’s essential to identify who these kids are and whether they find it difficult to learn in relation to their vision,” she said.

Soundproof Your Room For Better Sleep

Talking to city dwellers, they admitted that they are already used to sleeping with the sound of the busy metropolitan outside. While they may have adapted to it, it does not mean that they are satisfied with it. You don’t have to do a major overhaul of your room in order to minimize the noise level. You don’t need the best soundproof windows but rather a few updates are enough to give you a more peaceful sleep.

If you are using the regular type of rug pads, you can exchange it with a soundproof kind. A collection from RugPadUSA features a version comprised of memory foam and felt material. The soundproof rug pads have a thick layer for insulation which helps in lowering the noise level inside the house as well as prevent outside noise from penetrating.

Change your throw pillow into ones made of wool and cotton. In the most recent study conducted by the Science Communication Unit from the University of the West England, Bristol, it was revealed that items made of natural materials are good in absorbing sound which is helpful in reducing noise pollution.

If you have curtains inside the room, make sure to purchase a blackout liner. The material is very thick that it blocks out the light as well as muffle the sound from the street.

If you can’t muffle outside noise, add more noise by purchasing a sound machine or a fan. This is what they refer to as white noise. A manufacturer of sound machine said that sound machines are effective in controlling the noise level in a space. As the white noise is turned on, the rest of the surrounding noise is muffled. With a fan, the steady whirring will muffle the undesirable noise.

There are paint coatings nowadays that are manufactured especially for the goal of absorbing sounds that are in the middle range. Homeowners don’t need to install best soundproof windows because the coating has been tested in the laboratories to prove its claim. The soundproof base coat should be done first as well as the finishing coat then it can be painted over with the chosen paint color.

Reviving Old Metro Cars

Metro is currently planning to dress up its rail cars which are an old series – 3000 and 6000. The transit agency made an announcement through a YouTube video upload that they are going to refurbish a number of rail cars from the 3000 and 6000 series in order for them to look uniform with the new trains. This entails wrapping the cars with a silver vinyl which is the same as the exterior of the new 7000 series. This is not a new method as car vinyl wrap in Brisbane is common to give vehicles a new look.

Aside from the vinyl wrap, the carpet will also be changed to one that has confetti print, flooring that is non-stick and the seats will be fitted with blue padding. As a start, two rail cars under the 6000 series will undergo the renovation. Aside from looking clean, Metro also want their rail cars to have a uniform look which is expected to save agency money for the long-term goal. Richard L. Jordan, the spokesman of the agency, said that the biggest change will be evident in the vinyl wrap which will cost $4,776.

Metro said that they will be able to save almost $60,000 in the long run while helping in waste reduction in the environment. The agency did not reveal any specific detail regarding the cost-benefit analysis but they said that painting the rail car will set them back $14,000. The vinyl wrap, on the other hand, will last longer in comparison to paint job.

Metro did not say how often the painting job is done on their rail cars or how long the vinyl wrap will last compared to the paint. As stated by the agency, the painting job is determined based on the condition of the cars or if there are unexpected situation such as graffiti painted over it.

Aside from the cost, painting also takes a lot of time thus for the entire duration the car will not be used as it is being serviced. Several coats are needed to achieve the right painting job and safety protocols must be followed because chemicals are utilized during this process. This is one of the advantages of using wraps over painting. This is the same reason why car vinyl wrap in Brisbane is favoured by car owners as it saves time and money.


Lake County As A Role Model In Addressing The Opioid Crisis

Addiction can easily change the life of an individual; however, there is help and support provided through best rehab in California to overcome the dependency and make a journey towards recovery. In order to control the addiction epidemic, different types of rehabilitation centers have been created with various methods of treatment. Luxurious rehabs standout from the rest because of the privacy and comfort provided to patients.

In Lake County, the growing opioid crisis is being addressedthrough services that include education, overdose rescue and available treatment through the progressive A Way Out program. Lake County is considered as a role model when it comes to addressing opioid addiction. The local officials got some form of recognition when Lt. Gov. Evelyn Sanguinetti together with her staff and staff officials visited the Lake County Health Department located in Waukegan and toured the facilities for substance abuse.

During discussions with local officials on how they respond to substance abuse, it was learned that recovering addicts have become beneficiaries of their progressive programs. According to Sanguinetti, she has seen different responses to the opioid crisis. She told a story about a sheriff who responded to the crisis by arresting all those involved in heroin and opioids.

Lake County has organized the distribution of naloxone to first responders in 2014 and so far, about 200 lives have been saved by the responding police officers, paramedics/firefighters. After the initial treatment, support and help is provided through the health department’s residential and outpatient programs.

An Opioid Overdose Prevention and Intervention Task Force was also launched by Gov. Bruce Rauner to include a statewide 24/7 addiction services hotline to those who are being challenged by the crisis. Much of Lake County’s success stemmed from bipartisan efforts among the law enforcers, health care and political leaders. They were able to create a great partnership that is supportive of local programs.

It is easier for individuals to recover from addiction if the treatmentis provided in a highly conducive environment. This is the reason why best rehab in California decided to take advantage of the sunny ambiance of California to provide holistic treatments to patients who are dependent on chemicals.

Benefits Of Booking At Phuket 5 Star Resort And Spa

Quality comes with price. It is a fact that in order to experience paramount comfort and elegant accommodation, you need to pay extra for it. It might sound like you would have to withdraw your savings just to get into a Phuket 5 star resort and spa but the truth is, there are several ways to bring down your total expenses if you only conduct a short research. You can easily find an average beach resort in Phuket but if you want to experience a once in a lifetime luxurious holiday, you might as well book in a 5 star resort and create lasting memories. Here are some of the benefits that you can get out of booking in a luxurious resort.

Full supplies and toiletries

When you book in a 5 star resort, there is no need for you to bring a lot of things because most of your needed supplies would be provided by the hotel. You can forget about your bath soap and your whole set of toiletries because you would be provided daily with a fresh set of branded body care products. You can also find slippers, lush towels, coffee, bottled water and tea in your room along with a fully stocked minibar. When you book in a Phuket 5 star resort and spa, all you have to bring are your personal necessities and clothing and the rest would be taken care by the resort.

Provided services

The main difference between a 5 star resort from those of the lower rated is automatic services offered to guests. You get automatic 24-hour room service, concierge and even a dedicated butler or hotel staff without having to request for one.

Comfort and style

One of the best things about booking in a Phuket 5 star resort and spa is you get incomparable service and of course, you get to stay in a luxurious resort with world-class facilities. You get to experience traditional massage techniques in a contemporary setting making you feel like you are getting the best of both worlds.

Sydney Sisters To Train Wedding Catering In Sydney

It’s a challenging experience to find workin Australia especially if you’re a newly arrived refugee. Thanks to two helping sisters, Sharon and Carol Salloum, the competitive job opportunity in Sydney are now broken down to fit the hospitality industry. The sisters currently own a popular Middle Eastern restaurant in Sydney, following the footsteps of their parents who moved to Australia some forty years ago. They also offer wedding catering in Sydney for those wanting catering services.

TheSalloum sisters hold prominent connections in the hospitality industry, with both working closely with SSI to determine strategies that connect refugees to trainings and jobs in Australia. They can also engage themselves to wedding catering in Sydney to improve their lives.

Sharon Salloum said, “We are determined to closely work with our friends at SSI to provide training and employment for refugees who are eager to work in the hospitality industry.” Both sisters are optimistic that other donors will share their passion to help those in need. There is now an ongoing discussion between SSI, the Salloumsisters, and newly arrived refugees living inside the community.

A plan to conduct a hospitality course such as wedding catering in Sydney for newly arrived refugees on a biweekly Community Kitchen event are also underway. This is in cooperation with food writers John Newton, Melissa Leong and renowned chef Hugh Foster.

SSI CEO Violet Roumeliotisacclaimed the sister’s enthusiasm to help, and said it initiated a strong message for support from a wider community. “One important thing to help refugees is by providing them with employment to lead them to financial independence, boost confidence, and provide social connections that build a feeling of belongingness,” Ms. Roumeliotis said.

“We are grateful to the Salloum sisters’ passion and enthusiasm to help people. We are happy to work with them to innovate solutions that make a real difference to the lives of refugees in Sydney.”

The initiative of both sisters has greatly helped SSI handle the many asylum seekers and refugees of the community. Both sisters have also helped in the preparation of food while donating catering services to support young refugee children during the SSI party last December.The women and childrencan train for wedding catering in Sydney, which is a dominant business in the city.